Chapter 5 states:
Differentiated instruction is built on a foundation of effective teaching practices. Quality curriculum is one of these defining principles, as what is taught serves as the basis for how it is taught. Quality curriculum has its basis in standards, or descriptions of student outcomes in content areas. (p1)
However, many educators have concerns regarding these new standards for various reasons outlined in Chapter 5 in the textbook including, but not limited to:
- Lack of training to implement the new standards
- A realistic view of standard mastery of students with special needs
- Too much government control over creative freedom of instruction
- How these new standards will be implemented on such a large scale
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are meant to provide educators and parents with a consistent and clear understanding of student expectations. While written to address English Language Arts and Mathematics, the CCSS address college and career ready knowledge and skills in preparing students to transition from high school to college.
First, read Chapter 5 of the course text. Then view the webinar, “Common Core State Standards: Where Does Differentiating Fit”.
Next, read and respond to the following scenario:
Ms. Phillips instructs in a middle school inclusion class with 20 ‘typical’ students, three students who have an IEP for a Specific Learning Disability, one student who has an IEP for “Other Health Impairment” (ADHD) and two students who are identified as ELL. Her class is beginning with a unit on the American Civil War that will focus on the significance of the Civil War Battle and the reason and significance behind President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.
As the unit starts, Ms. Phillips provides her students with a KWL chart to share what they already know about the Civil War
Example of a Student Response to the KWL Chart (Creately, 2011)
After reviewing the student’s KWL charts (see an example above), Ms. Phillips realizes that she should integrate differentiated strategies to provide a more well-rounded and accurate understanding of the topic and to make it more personally relevant.
For this discussion:
- Create two measurable lesson objectives that are aligned with one Common Core Standard. For each of the objectives, create two differentiated strategies designed to master the objective.
- Explain how the strategies you’ve suggested are engaging to diverse learners.
- Cite scholarly sources to support how your strategies are examples of differentiation.
Assignment 2 – 2pgs
Examine “All Children Can Learn”. Then, search the web for effective, evidence-based differentiated strategies that are engaging, motivating, and address the needs of individual learners.
First, provide five evidence-based strategies:
- Two instructional strategies (i.e., graphic organizers),
- Two instructional tools (e.g., technology tool, device or iPad App, Web Quests, etc.),
- One activity (e.g., Think-Pair-Share).
Second, for the two instructional strategies you listed explain how you can alter each to address the classroom needs you designed in Weeks One and Two and how the modification is relevant to the theory of differentiation.
Miss Taylor Brooke Stancil’s
Differentiated Instruction Strategies
Choral Response: Choral response is a very simple technique in which the teacher asks
questions to the class as a whole and the students answer in unison. This is a good way of
assessing the class’s overall understanding without singling students out.
Clothesline: Teacher stretches a string out across the room. One side of the string signifies
“know a lot” while the other side is labeled “know nothing” and the students place themselves
where they feel necessary for a particular topic.
Fist of Five: Students use their fingers as a scale of one to five to express understanding.
Four Corners: Teacher can choose basically anything to label the four corners of the classroom.
For example, the teacher may ask an opinionated question and can label each corner with a
different answer. The students go to the corner they agree with.
Individual Response Boards: Each student has a small white board or chalk board. The teacher
asks the class a question and the students record their response on the board.
Signal/Pinch Cards: Fold an index card 4 ways. Number the sections 1-4 or A-D. You can use
this for true and false, multiple choice, almost anything. This is a very simple assessment tool.
Speedometer: Students move crossed arms from being together to apart to show how much they
understand a particular topic. This is a good way for the students to assess their own learning.
Windshield: The teacher asks the students if their “windshield” is clear, buggy, or muddy. This
shows their own understanding of the content.
Exit Cards: You can do anything with these really. The teacher can asks a question before they
leave and have them write the answer, have the students reflect on what they learned today. One
of my teachers had us write one thing we learned and one question we have.
Entrance Card/Warm-Up: Prior to the lesson, the students answer a question or set of question
posed by the teacher.
Index Card Summaries: This is exactly what it sounds like. After a lesson, have the students
summarize what they have learned on an index card.
One Minute Essay: After the teach relays new information to the students, give them one
minute to write a short essay about what they have learned. They are much more likely to
remember the material if you do this from time to time and have them write it down.
Jigsaw: Divide the students up into four groups and provide each group with some material to
study. Allow the students to become experts on that particular topic. Then, by choosing one
student from each group, develop four different groups and allow the “experts” to share what
they studied with the rest of the group. This is fast, effective way to cover new information; it
decreases student workload, and encourages collaboration.
Three Minute Pause: After the teacher presents a lot of new material, she asks the students to
think for three minutes about what they have learned. They can jot down notes or sketches to
show what they have learned.
Idea Spinner: Teacher creates a spinner with predict, explain, evaluate, and summarize. They
review something and ask a question asking the students to do whichever they land on when they
spin the idea spinner.
Inside-Outside Circle: Half the class makes a circle facing out. The other half makes a circle
facing the inside circle. They ask each other review questions then rotate in the same direction.
Great for test review!
Think-Pair-Share: Have the students read or study something. Give them time to think and
reflect. Put the students in pairs and let them discuss the material. Let the pairs share what they
have learned or their thoughts.
Circle Maps: These are great for defining things in context. They are also a great brainstorming
Bubble Maps: this is good to design process of describing attributes of something.
Double Bubble Maps: Similar to a bubble map but with two main bubbles. It works well for
comparing and contrasting two things.
Bridge Maps: Bridge maps provide a visionary pathway for creating and interpreting analogies.
They are used for developing analogical reasoning and metaphorical concepts for deeper content
Tree Maps: Tree maps are ideal for inductive and deductive classification.
Brace Maps: these maps work well when showing parts of a whole as well as physical
relationships of an object. It helps tap into spatial reasoning.
Flow Maps: These maps show sequencing, orders, time lines, and cycles. They also help to see
relationships between stages and sub-stages of events.
Multi-flow Maps: Great to use for cause and effect!
Colored Cups: Give students in groups 3 different colored cups. Green means they are doing
well. Yellow means they need help. Red means they are stuck and need a lot of help. This is a
great way for the teacher to monitor group work.
Graffiti Wall: One a white board, poster, or chalk board, students take turns coming up and
writing random things that relate to one topic. They can write it big, small, crooked, or anything.
Shape-Ups: This is similar to think-tac-toe but instead of choosing three in a row, they have to
pick one of each shape.
Think-Tac-Toes: Give the student a tic-tac-toe grid and allow them to choose three in a row to
do for homework, testing, or something else. This is a great way to let them learn by their own
Homework Checkers: See if students have their homework done. If not, let them go
somewhere aside to finish it. If they are finished, let them go over their answers. Once they
agree on all answers, they staple their work together and turn it into the teacher. This way the
teacher only has to grade one set of work.
Pass the Ball: The teacher asks a question and then throws a ball to a student who has the
answer to the question. If the student answers the question correctly, he/she gets to shoot a
basket. If the student answers incorrectly, they pass the ball to a teammate for assistance.
RSQC2: In two minutes, students recall and list in rank order the most important ideas from the
previous day’s class. In two more minutes, they summarize those pointes in a single sentence.
Then they write one major question they want answered. They then identify a thread or theme to
connect this material to the course’s major goal.
Walking Through Pages: This is to familiarize the students with the textbook. Tell the students
that they get three minutes to put sticky notes on their most favorite parts of the textbook. When
the time is up, discuss with each child what was their favorite and why. As you discuss, put a
stick note where the student suggests, marking their names. Now you have an easy interest
inventory to refer to all year long.
Ticket out the Door: Give the students a short essay to respond to on an index card as they
leave for the day. Their names must be on the card.
Cubing: The cube has 6 faces with a different activity on each face. Use the 6 levels of Bloom’s
taxonomy on the cubes. (knowledge, comprehension, evaluation, analysis, synthesis, and
RAFT: R=Role A=Audience F=Format T=Topic This is a great way to spark the imagination.
This motivates students because it appeals to their learning style and interest. It can be presented
in many ways and used as a unit hook, a lesson within a unit, an assessment at the end of a unit, a
jigsaw, or a test review
3-2-1 Summarizer: Students states three things they learned, 2 ways the information relates to
them personally, and 1 question they have about the material.
I Have-Who Has: This is a great little game for review! Give students cards that have an
answer on top and a question on bottom. When one student asks their question, the student with
the correct answer says the answer, and then asks their question. This cycle repeats until all
questions are asked.
Other Helpful Tools Even Dozen: Students draw 12 boxes after looking at some material. Group students and have
them write main concepts in each box. One student says something about a box and label’s it #1.
The next student chooses a box, and says something about it that relates to #1. They label that
box #2. Continue the cycle.
ABC Review: From a container, students draw tiles with letters on them. The student needs to
make a statement about the topic beginning with the letter.
Divide and Conquer: Divide the class into groups. Each group has a section of the board to
write on. Each group is given different problems to solve. The group takes turns going up to
answer the problem, but the group can help each other out.
Trash Basketball: Wad up a piece of paper. Tape off three lines on the floor each farther away
from the trashcan. One by one students come up and answer a question on a flash card. If they
get it correct, they choose to shot a 10, 20, or 30 point basket.
Hot Seat: using post-it notes, write questions and stick them underneath the students’ desks or
chairs. Great for review or checking understanding.
Students using THIEVES: Students should preview the text selection by looking at the Title,
Headings, Introduction, Every sentence, Visuals and vocabulary, End of chapter questions, and
Timed Pair Share: students pair off then number 1-2. Teacher chooses either 1 or 2 to talk first.
That student talks about a topic for a particular length of time. Then the other student speaks for
Wise Sages: Teacher announces the topic. Students come up with as many questions as they can
about the topic in three minutes. They can put these on post it notes. The group then goes
through the questions and initials the ones they know the answer to. They then take turns
choosing a question, looking to see who initialed it, then asking them to answer.
GIST: Summarize the main idea in your own words, no more than 25. Make sure all points are
covered. Then reduce it to 20. Then 15-10. You should be left with the main idea.
Four-Two-One: Teacher asks the students to generate 4 words that summarize the main idea of
a particular content. They then share with a group and make a list of words they have in
common. They then narrow it down to the 2 most relevant ones. Then have them narrow it down
Vanity Plates: Students take on the role of the topic to be studied for the purpose of creating a
vanity plate. Assign a topic of study. Students create a vanity plate related to the topic of study.
Have them share by lining up in parallel lines, student facing student. Rotate.