design an outline that will be used to create the Literature Review required as part of the Week 5-7 project. 

Week 5 DiscussionCOLLAPSE

Discussion Instructions:

1. Students will use the Keiser University Online Library to find a minimum of five peer-reviewed journal articles (including articles found during previous weeks IF they apply to the student’s topic).  All articles must be from Psychology Journals and address a psychological construct (i.e., topic).

2. For the initial discussion post, design an outline that will be used to create the Literature Review required as part of the Week 5-7 project.  Use the following template when posting an outline for your initial discussion.

3. Students will then improve the outline during the week with the help of other students and the Professor.  Once completed, students will cut/paste the outline information and submit it as part of their Week 5 assignment, along with their annotated bibliography.

4. Attach the articles to your initial discussion post.

When responding to other students this week, help each other develop a precise topic for the Week 5-7 project.  Provide specific feedback including examples.  The following template can be used this week to create the initial discussion post.

NOTE: as always for every discussion and assignment, students must properly cite resources in-text and in a “References” list.

DISCUSSION OUTLINE TEMPLATE (after revisions, cut and paste the final outline and submit as part of the Week 5 assignment):

Hello Class,

Introduction (do not actually create a section heading called Introduction as that is assumed): provide a short paragraph introducing the reader to the main topic and the key concepts that will be addressed in the literature review assignment (Weeks 5-7).

Theme One (create a new section heading based on your topic theme): describe in 2-3 words the first main topic of your literature review. Next, briefly (4-5 sentences) describe the information you will discuss in your Literature Review paper and cite articles that will support your discussion.

EXAMPLE:  imagine a student’s topic is “Writing a Literature Review Strategies for Psychology Graduate Students”.  The first section might be “Annotated Bibliography and Outline” because that is a main theme found in the literature (DO NOT USE THIS THEME FOR YOUR PAPER).  The section description could describe how this section will define and explain the concepts (Smith, 2001; Mohammed, 2015).  The section description could also include, for example, how Section One will address how an outline and an annotated bibliography is created and formatted (Chang, 2017; Rodriguez, 2014; Conner, 2000).

Theme Two (create a new section heading based on your topic theme): describe in 2-3 words the second main topic of your literature review. Next, briefly (4-5 sentences) describe the information you will discuss in your LIterature Review paper and cite articles that will support your discussion.

Theme Three if you find one

Conclusion (a discussion and/or Conclusion section is an appropriate section heading): summarize the discussion and add comments addressing how the outline and subsequent literature review can still be improved.  Perhaps even ask for help by addressing specific questions or concerns.  For example, students might state “one of the challenges with this outline is there appears to be limited research on the topic of creating an annotated bibliography”.  This comment could help other students and the Professor provide the student with useful feedback.

References (centered on new page)

list all references included in the outline

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  • Message Actions (Click to see options)/How to Synthesize Articles for a Paper

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    1

    Steps in this tutorial

    1) State goals of this tutorial

    2) What does it mean to synthesize

    3) Why synthesizing is important

    4) How to, and not to, synthesize

    5) Detailed example of synthesizing articles

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    2

    Goal

    This tutorial explains what synthesizing articles means

    It explains why this is an important and useful skill in psychology writing

    It discusses common mistakes students make in attempting to synthesize articles

    It gives an example of how to synthesize articles

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    3

    Objectives

    By the end of this tutorial you should be able to

    Articulate what it means to synthesize an article or articles in your own work

    Describe why that is important

    Actually synthesize articles in your own writing

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    4

    What does it mean to “Synthesize Articles”

    It means that in your literature review you examine a number of studies on a shared topic and note aspects that are of interest for your own work

    It also may mean that you draw and state a conclusion about the similarities and differences in the studies you review

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    5

    Why is synthesizing important?

    Synthesizing articles is a crucial skill in psychology writing

    It is important for a number of reasons:

    It is efficient—there is no reason for the reader to read all the articles you describe, since you are synthesizing them

    It allows you to highlight what was important to you about those articles

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    6

    How to synthesize articles?

    First let’s consider how not to synthesize articles

    It is not unusual to see a student paper that reviews one article after another

    It describes each article in one or two or more paragraphs

    Usually giving sample size, method, findings, etc.

    Often in some detail

    This is not a synthesis

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    7

    How not to synthesize articles

    Simply writing a detailed summary of one article after another is not a synthesis

    Also it is often boring and confusing for the reader

    A synthesis gives enough information about the study for the reader to imagine it

    But really highlights what is important about the study for your paper

    And notes what is similar and important across several studies

    This helps orient your reader to what is important to you

    And avoids boring your reader with a lot of unnecessary detail

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    8

    How to Synthesize Articles

    It is possible to synthesize multiple articles in one paragraph

    You note the shared issue across the articles that you want to call attention to

    Note any important differences that are relevant to your study

    And describe each article briefly in ways relevant to your study

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    9

    How to Synthesize Articles: Example

    Suppose you are writing a paper about canine aggression

    You read three articles about aggressive dogs

    One thing you are interested in is how aggression in dogs has been assessed, and you want your reader to understand that there is variation in assessment

    So you synthesize what you have read to reflect this focus

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    10

    How to Synthesize Articles: Example

    You might say something like this:

    Research indicates that there are a number of approaches to assessing canine aggression. One study (Reisner, Shofer & Nance, 2007) of dog aggression towards children used retrospective review of aggressive incidents reported to a veterinary clinic, and included a systematic categorization of the types and circumstances of the incidents. A study specifically focusing on comparing variation in aggression across several different breeds employed a standardized survey measure of general aggressive behaviors, which is based on owner report of canine aggression (Duffy, Hsu & Serpel, 2008). Another study reported the use of a standardized assessment of very specific aggressive behavior (food guarding), using an assessment method that can be used by either owners or professionals (Mohan-Gibbons, Weiss & Slater, 2012). All the methods yielded valid results as noted by each study, but the standardized measures appeared to be more efficient and easier to use with non-professionals.

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    11

    Notes on the Example

    Not all the articles focused on assessing aggression

    But they did include assessment

    That was what you were interested in, so you focused on that aspect

    You did not give many details about each study

    You did not say, for example, exactly which breeds, or even exactly how many dogs were in each study

    You did say something about each type of assessment

    You also included a conclusion about how assessments were performed and what type of assessment might be more or less useful

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    12

    How to Synthesize Articles- Comments

    Synthesizing takes practice

    You need to know what you are focused on in your own study in order to synthesize articles for it

    You need to know what parts of an article are of use to your own study, and what parts are not

    You need to draw a conclusion for the reader, so the reader will know what is important about the studies you have summarized

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    13

    Summary

    This tutorial focused on how to synthesize articles

    It explained what this means

    It explained why it is important in psychology writing

    It discussed ways not to synthesize articles

    It described how to do so correctly, and gave an example

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

    14

    References

    Duffy, D.L., Hsu, Y., & Serpell, J.A. (2008). Breed differences in canine aggression. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 114, 441-460.

    Mohan-Gibbons, H., Weiss, E., Slater, M. (2012). Preliminary investigation of food guarding behavior in shelter dogs in the United States. Animals, 2, 331-346.

    Reisner, I.R., Shofer, F.S. & Nance, M.L. (2007). Behavioral assessment of child directed canine aggression. Injury Prevention, 13, 348- 351.

    Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, Department of Psychology, University of Massachu

 

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