Assignment – Week 9
Application: Career Counseling with Diverse and Multicultural Clients
Culturally competent career counseling presupposes recognition and an understanding of diverse and multicultural client populations. Chapter 4 reflects the changing American workforce and the concerns of these dynamic groups all of which demand heightened sensitivity by career counseling professionals.
To prepare for this assignment:
· Review Chapter 4. Reflect on the information provided in Sidebar 4.6 and 4.7 on pp. 118-119. Compare the two as you think about the following questions:
- How does multicultural identity and career development affect career counseling goals and objectives?
- What specific factors or considerations related to racial/ethnic identity and other aspects of culture and identity seem to influence the individuals’ career development?
- What insights gained from Chapter 4 would be most critical to keep in mind when counseling clients who belong to minority groups?
The assignment: (2–3 pages)
Analyze the information on pp. 118-119 in Chapter 4.
· Career counselors are required to be responsive to the needs of diverse clients. Consider how diverse groups and career development affect career counseling goals and objectives.
· Explain the specific factors or considerations related to diverse groups and other aspects of culture and identity that seem to influence the individuals’ career development.
· You should also include strategies for advocating for diverse clients career and educational development. Utilizing the NCDA website resources identify specific variables career counselors should consider when exploring employment opportunities and career management in a global economy.
· Lastly, describe the insights gained from Chapter 4 that would be most critical to keep in mind when counseling clients who belong to diverse groups.
· Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012). Career counseling: Foundations, perspectives, and applications. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
o Chapter 4, “Career Counseling Without Borders: Moving Beyond Traditional Career Practices of Helping”
· Video: Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2007). Vocational psychology and counseling: Career counseling and diversity. Baltimore: Author with Dr. Darrell Luzzo
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 17 minutes.
Accessible player –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio
· National Career Development Association. (2015). Internet sites for career planning. Retrieved from www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sp/resources
Advocacy Examples Advocacy in career counseling might be as simple as finding a mentor for a Hispanic woman who is uncertain about entering the engineering field. It can also include talking with prospective employers about the various environmental barriers that might keep certain individuals from applying for certain jobs. Advocacy in career counseling can take various forms, and it is vital that career counselors understand how they can work as social justice advocates on behalf of their clients.
In 1998, Lee and Walz published a landmark book titled Social Action: A Mandate for Counselors. The authors of this book recognized the importance of social advocacy in counseling and challenged all counselors to make social advocacy more prominent in their work with clients. In 1999, Loretta Bradley was elected ACA president and made advocacy a central theme of her leadership. Her leadership culminated in the publication of the book Advocacy in Counseling: Counselors, Clients, and Communities in 2000. In 2000, Jane Goodman, then president of the ACA, commissioned a task force to develop advocacy competencies for the profession. The task force developed the ACA Advocacy Competencies in 2001. The ACA Advocacy competencies provide a framework for career counselors to enact advocacy strategies. The ACA adopted the Advocacy Competencies (Lewis, Arnold, House, & Toporek, 2002) in 2003 as a response to the growing need for counselors to implement advocacy interventions.
The Advocacy Competencies consist of three levels of intervention (Ratts, Toporek, & Lewis, 2010): client–student, school–community, and the public arena. Each level is divided into two domains that assist a counselor in acting with, and on behalf of, the client. The client–student advocacy level includes the client–student empowerment and client–student advocacy domains. At this level, career counselors recognize the impact that social, political, eco- nomic, and cultural factors have on an individual’s career development. Career counselors use direct interventions to identify clients’ strengths and help to identify barriers and potential allies. The school–community level includes the community collaboration and systems advocacy domains. At this level, career counselors are aware of how environmental factors negatively affect career development and choose to respond to these barriers by collaborating with community organizations and advocating to remove unnecessary career barriers. The public arena level includes the public information and social– political advocacy domains. At this level, career counselors might take action against societal and normative career barriers by taking the issue public and by advocating politically against the presence of social injustices.
Integrating Advocacy in Counselor Education Learning how many counselor education programs and departments have developed internship experiences designed to hone the advocacy skills of counselor candidates would be interesting. In today’s increasingly diverse society, it would be unusual for practicing counselors to have a caseload devoid of clients who had experienced oppression and discrimination in the process of attempting to enter a career field or become upwardly mobile once established in an occupation.
Given the historical and philosophical underpinnings of multicultural and social justice, understanding the complementary nature of the career coun- seling field’s two perspectives is important. When combined, both per- spectives can strengthen the work of career counselors (Ratts, 2011). The multicultural perspective helps career counselors develop insight into how social, political, economic, and cultural forces influence the career develop- ment process. Understanding the sociopolitical nature of career development often leads career counselors to recognize that they cannot continue to do the same things if they want to help culturally diverse clients. Increased under- standing of the sociopolitical context of client problems can often serve as a gateway to social justice advocacy.
Ratts (2011) viewed multiculturalism and social justice as “two sides of the same coin” (p. 35). In other words, both multiculturalism and social jus- tice are necessary when working with culturally diverse clients. Rubel and Ratts (2007) added that the multicultural perspective is about social justice. They believed the multicultural and social justice perspectives shared com- mon assumptions: the need
· To view clients within the context of their environment
· To explore whether client problems are connected to oppressive social, political, and economic conditions
· To move beyond traditional models of helping when working with culturally diverse clients.
The similarities between multiculturalism and social justice led Toporek (2006) to connect the two perspectives by linking the Multicultural Counseling Competencies and Advocacy Competencies with the Career Development Competencies of the National Career Development Association. This innovative approach offers career counselors a framework to implement multicultural and social justice competencies. Similarly, in an effort to connect the multicultural and social justice perspectives, Ratts (2011) developed the multicultural and advocacy dimensions model. This model lays the groundwork for developing culturally and advocacy-responsive counseling services. It can help career counselors in their work to develop into multiculturally and advocacy-competent helping professionals.