how does the overall diversity of the area compare to the other areas.




Assignment must be only one page NOT including the chart page and the reference page 



For this assignment, you will need to carefully consider information about 4 proposed conservation sites (this information is contained in a file linked in the HW). First, complete the comparison chart for the 4 proposed areas. Then, based on all the information you have, decide which forest area do you think should be conserved. Your writing assignment will explain which area you chose and your reasoning for choosing it, which should include:

  • Biological Considerations: Explain why you chose this area. Your explanation must include the following:
    • how does the overall diversity of the area compare to the other areas. Note: you do not need to choose the most diverse area, but you must demonstrate that you have considered the diversity by discussing it.
    • how diverse are the primates in your area compared to the other proposed areas; how did you determine primate diversity (hint: you need to use the evolutionary tree). As with overall diversity, you do not need to choose the most diverse primate area to preserve.
    • other biological considerations: discuss at least 2 of the following:  the size of the area, the shape of the area,  the area’s endemic species, the presence of exotic (introduced) species
  • Non-biological Considerations: other advantages to conserving this area, for example economic advantages.
  • Disadvantages to conserving other areas (optional)

Note: there is no one correct answer to this question, which means your explanation of the reasons is extremely important to the scoring of your assignment.

You must attach the completed comparison chart from the assignment file to your written assignment. Failure to do so will result in a major reduction in the content score.

Biology 101 Writing Assignment Guidelines

The written assignments are designed to provide opportunities for the student to find, evaluate, select, synthesize, organize, cite, and present information and arguments clearly and effectively for understanding scientific issues on personal, societal, and global levels.  This requirement is designed to help students achieve the University-wide Student Learning Outcomes (UPS 300.003) specifically to “communicate clearly, effectively, and persuasively, both orally and in writing”. (See: )

It is important that your assignments are thoroughly researched and clearly written.  You should define all your terms and be concise.  These assignments are designed to give you the experience of applying your knowledge of biology to a current controversy or topic of interest.  You will use the same sort of method that you will later use as an informed citizen and consumer when making decisions that involve biology. You should review the relevant chapters in your textbook, other course materials and use other sources to fill in missing information when necessary.

The structure of your paper

  • Be sure to cover the points mentioned in each individual assignment and define all technical terms that you use in your own words.  Your paper needs to be written so the average person can understand it.
  • You are encouraged to use first and/or second person in all of these writing assignments.
  • Your paper must be between 1/2 -1page (not including references).  The second page is only for the complete references of the material cited in your paper.  Any portion of your text on the second page will not be read or graded. Your paper should be double-spaced with one-inch margins, using 12 point Times New Roman font.  No cover page or heading is required (the body of your paper should begin on the first line of the first page).
  • You are not allowed to include any quotes in your paper.  All of your writing must be original. You must properly paraphrase ideas from the literature, even if you provide an in-text citation.
  • Information and ideas that are properly paraphrased must be accompanied by proper in-text citations in the body of your paper and a corresponding reference in American Psychological Association (APA) format. Note: only the references need to be in APA, other APA formatting items (such as a title page) should not be included.
  • You need to review your paper for format, spelling, grammar and usage errors before you submit it, or you will lose points.
  • Please also review the grading rubric before submitting your paper to make sure that you have done everything you can to receive a good grade.

Outside Sources

Primary Sources You may find information in the “primary literature,” which is where the research was originally published.  You can find these articles by using CSUF’s on-line search engines, or by asking for the help of a CSUF librarian.  Examples of the primary literature include Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy, and Genetics.

Secondary Sources You may find relevant articles in recent newspapers, popular magazines, or popular science journals.  These are referred to as “secondary” sources, since they describe research that was published elsewhere.  Examples of these include The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Guardian, Time, Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, and Science News.

Websites: If you choose to use a website, be aware that most websites are not peer-reviewed, and often present inaccurate information.  Examples of excellent websites include those of the National Academy of Science, the National Institute of Health, the Centers for Disease Control, and WebMD. If you are unsure of the appropriateness of a website, check with your instructor.  Alternatively, the CSUF library has an excellent guide to evaluating websites at under Guides for Undergraduates.  Wikipedia is not an appropriate website for research in a college course.

Guidelines for citing references

In-Text Citations are REQUIRED for any information included in your paper (everything that is not common knowledge or opinion)

In-text citations should be in APA format.  You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your citations at:

NOTE:  Any course materials used to complete these assignments must also be properly cited in your paper.

Reference Page is REQUIRED and should include all sources cited in text

Your references should be formatted using APA guidelines.  You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your reference page at:

The Purdue OWL: Citation Chart is a quick reference on how to format citations and references using different formats, including APA can be found at:

Conservation of an Island Biodiversity Hotspot

The government of Mahandar wants to expand biodiversity conservation efforts on the island. The government has two goals: 1) to protect the overall biodiversity and sustainability of the island ecosystem, and 2) to protect the endemic primates that live in the forests on the island. The endangered primates are unique and very sensitive to habitat changes. This puts them at a higher risk of extinction. The primates have also become a well-known attraction for ecotourists from around the world. The government has enough funds to fully support conservation at only one of four forest areas being considered for conservation. You are a member of the conservation team that will advise the government as to which area should get full conservation support.

Complete the chart on the following page. You will attach this chart (but not this instruction page) to your completed writing assignment when you submit it.

Things to Consider: Examine the map of the island, the primate evolutionary tree, and read (carefully) the descriptions of the 4 possible conservation areas on the following pages. Then, consider the following:

Does the size of the proposed conservation area matter? Which proposed sites have a size advantage? Which have a disadvantage?

Does the shape of the proposed conservation area matter? Which area(s) are shaped in a desirable way? Which areas are shaped in a detrimental way?

Do all areas contain the same biodiversity? Which have more? Which have less?

Do all areas contain significant diversity in their primate populations (you need to consult the evolutionary tree to determine this)? Which areas contain more genetically diverse primate populations? Which areas contain less diverse populations?

The Written Assignment: Based on all the information you have, which forest area do you think should be conserved? Explain your reasoning; your reasoning should include the advantages to conserving the area you picked (required), and may also include disadvantages to conserving other areas (optional). While you may decide on a particular area due to non-biological considerations (for example, economic advantages to conserving this area), you must also discuss the biology (shape, size, diversity) in your response. Note: there is no one correct answer to this question, which means your explanation of the reasons is extremely important to the scoring of your assignment.

Forest area Biological Advantages of conserving this area Economic Advantages of conserving this area Trade-offs (“cons”) of

Conserving the area

Mangrove Forest
Tropical Forest North
Tropical Forest South
Cloud Forest

The island of Mahandar

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Mahandarian Primates

Below is a phylogenetic tree for the primates on Mahandar. The tree shows evolutionary data for primate taxa that are endemic to the island. Think carefully – Some regions have all their primates on branches that are close together, other regions have primates spread all over the tree. You will need to understand the difference this makes in order to correctly determine which areas have more diverse primate groups.

Four Possible Conservation Areas

1. Mangrove Forest

land area to be conserved (%) 7
number of endemic species in the area 14
number of endemic species threatened 7

Unique Characteristics

The mangrove forest on the island is dense with stilt mangrove trees and shrubs that grow in brackish coastal swamps. The roots of the mangrove trees filter the salts out of seawater. They also filter silt and nutrients from river water, allowing clear water to flow to the nearby coral reef. The vegetation serves an important role in the coastal area as a buffer to protect the nearby shoreline villages from hurricanes and other storms. The vegetation also prevents erosion along the riverbanks. Mangroves provide food and shelter to a variety of organisms.

Conservation Considerations

In recent years, partly because of mangrove forest degradation, the inland areas of the island have been damaged by flooding from severe storms that have blown in. Almost all of the buildings and houses in one village were lost to the flooding. The villagers lost their crops and homes, and had to move to other areas.

If the area is conserved, the island government plans to offer limited permits at a reasonable cost for sustainable ecotourism to the area. For those who live on the island, ecotourism would provide jobs ranging from researchers and tour guides to restaurant waiters, cooks, hotel workers, drivers, and boat crewmen. People who make handicrafts and other goods also would earn money by selling their wares to tourists. Park fees would bring in revenue that would also contribute to the island’s economy.

Currently, island residents have unlimited access to the mangrove forest for fishing and shrimping. Some fishermen have small businesses in which they sell their catch at local markets. Others fish for recreation or to feed their families. If the mangrove is conserved, a strict catch limit will be enforced in order to protect the food sources for a variety of organisms in the ecosystem. The new limits could force the local fishermen to downsize their businesses and reduce their income.

2. Tropical Rainforest North

land area to be conserved (%) 6
number of endemic species in the area 234
number of endemic species threatened 68

Unique Characteristics

The tropical rainforest is the most biodiverse area on the island, and this northern region of the rainforest is more diverse than the southern region. Medical research scientists search for unique species in this area that may provide substances for new medicines. However, there is not much of this forest left. The earliest settlers in the northern area cleared land to plant agricultural crops, and hunted lizards and birds for additional food. They also introduced new plants and animals to provide sources of food, medicine, building materials, and decoration. So, while there are currently a lot of endemic species in the undeveloped part of the forest (the part that would be protected), there are numerous non-endemic (introduced) species in the adjacent areas. Since the first settlers came to the area, logging, development, and agriculture have destroyed 95% of the northern region’s forest.

Conservation Considerations

A small family-run business harvests coffee from the plants they have grown in this forest area. The exported coffee is a desirable commodity for people in other countries, and it is marketed as some of the best quality and most sustainable in the world. It benefits the family and a small number of workers hired to help with the harvest. If the forest is designated

for conservation, the family will no longer have access to the forest for their coffee. This would

mean lost income, with family members and the small number of people employed by the business losing their jobs.

If this area were conserved, the vast biodiversity of the area would be protected, including the plant species central to pharmaceutical research and product development. Unfortunately, it might not be possible to protect the forest from encroachment from the nearby non-endemic (introduced) species. Research scientists would be assigned permits to collect specimens in a sustainable manner from the area. Recently, a team of scientists was sent to the island to research a plant found nowhere else that shows potential as a new malaria treatment. If the treatment is successful, it could save millions of lives. The research institute signed an agreement with the Mahandar government that a percentage of the profit made from products containing substances from Mahandar plants will go back into the island economy.

3. Tropical Rainforest South

land area to be conserved (%) 12
number of endemic species in the area 161
number of endemic species threatened 17

Unique Characteristics

The southern region of the tropical rainforest is the quite biodiverse. It is

larger than the northern region of the rainforest because the earliest settlers remained mostly in the northern region of the forest, so this area was not as severely deforested as the north. A number of tree-dwelling species (including primates) depend on the tall trees as a highway that allows them to move around the forest without having to travel on the


Conservation Considerations

If this area were conserved, the vast biodiversity of the area would be protected. In addition, the government plans to build a primate center to research and protect the endemic primates that live in the island forests. This center will also be the focus of a program to educate the public. Permits will be available for ecotourists to visit the center to observe the primates and learn more about them through tours and exhibits. However, the cost of the permits will be much higher for this remote area than the cost to tour the mangrove forest. The primate center and access for ecotourists will require the construction of roads and facilities, which will be done in the most sustainable manner possible. For island residents it will provide such jobs as tour guides, drivers, lab technicians, and instructors.

4. Tropical Montane Cloud Forest

land area to be conserved (%) 3
number of endemic species in the area 11
number of endemic species threatened 5

Unique Characteristics

The tropical montane cloud forest ecosystem plays an important role in the water cycle and climate on the island. Experiments have shown that cloud forests prevent the evaporation of precipitation far better than non-cloud forests do. The precipitation in the cloud forest is mostly in the form of fog, which condenses on the trees and drips onto the ground. The water soaks into the soil, where it is stored. Any excess runoff drains into stagnant water pools in the forest. The large water supply in the soil and the pools supports a wide variety of organisms.

Conservation Considerations

Such human activities as logging and clearing the land to plant crops have degraded the cloud forest on Mahandar. This is a concern because during the dry season it is important that water from the cloud forest reaches the lower elevations where it is needed for irrigation, power generation, and drinking water. Recently, there have been reports of pollution problems with the water supply in another area of the island. Because of these reports, the government is concerned that in the future there will not be an adequate supply of clean water for the island. If conserved, the cloud forest would supply one source of clean drinking water.

Two decades ago, a corporation bought a portion of the cloud forest to develop a large tea plantation. The tea is highly desirable worldwide because the unique growing conditions give it a flavor that people love. Currently, there is a plan underway to expand the plantation to meet the growing demand for the tea. If the cloud forest is conserved, the tea plantation would not be permitted to expand, the company would not increase its profits, and no additional jobs for islanders would be created.

However, if the area were conserved, the risk of further adverse effects on the water cycle, climate, and organisms that depend on these resources would be reduced. For example, there is a rare species of endemic frog that inhabits only the cloud forest. It lives in bushes close to shallow pools of standing water and breeds in the standing water. If the forest area is not conserved, the frog might be further endangered.

Adapted from curriculum provided by the Science Education for Public Understanding Program

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