1. In your own words, describe how plants function to extract energy from the sun and their contribution to animals. In your answer, describe the major structures and their functional importance (roots, leaves, etc.) How do soil bacteria participate in the process? (10 points)
2. Ashley and Ben have six children. Neither Ben nor Ashley have disorder X. Two of their children have the disorder (both are male). Draw the appropriate pedigree. (10 points) Designate alleles for each individual, indicating what each allele means. (5 points) Briefly discuss what type of inheritance pattern this is likely to be. Be sure to justify your answer. (10 points)
3. What is the difference between a gene and an allele? Provide a specific example. (10 points)
4. Why are identical twins, despite identical DNA, have differences? For example, why may one twin get an autoimmune disorder, while the other remains healthy? (15 points).
5. Based on what you learned, do you think there is such as a thing as “a balanced diet”? Why or why not? If so, do you think there is one diet that should be recommended to everyone? What variables may affect this? (15 points)
6. Research the chemical components of the air we breathe. Indicate the percentages of each chemical in our air. (10 points). Why can’t humans breathe in outer space? How about on the moon or on Mars? (10 points)
7. Define the following terms: (5 points)
a. Ionic bond
b. Hydrogen bond
c. Covalent bond
d. Recessive trait
e. Dominant trait
***Please be sure to provide references for where you obtained the information!