Some questions in Part A require that you access data from Statistics for People Who (Think T hey) Hate Statistics . This data is available on the student website under the Student Text Resources link.

Practice the following problems by hand just to see if you can get the numbers right. Using the following information, calculate the t test statistic.

Using the data in the file named Ch. 11 Data Set 3, test the null hypothesis that urban and rural residents both have the same attitude toward gun control. Use IBM® SPSS® software to complete the analysis for this problem.

A public health researcher tested the hypothesis that providing new car buyers with child safety seats will also act as an incentive for parents to take other measures to protect their children (such as driving more safely, child-proofing the home, and so on). Dr. L counted all the occurrences of safe behaviors in the cars and homes of the parents who accepted the seats versus those who did not. The findings: a significant difference at the .013 level. Another researcher did exactly the same study; everything was the same—same type of sample, same outcome measures, same car seats, and so on. Dr. R’s results were marginally significant (recall Ch. 9) at the .051 level. Which result do you trust more and why?

In the following examples, indicate whether you would perform a t test of independent means or dependent means.

Two groups were exposed to different treatment levels for ankle sprains. Which treatment was most effective?

A researcher in nursing wanted to know if the recovery of patients was quicker when some received additional in-home care whereas when others received the standard amount.

A group of adolescent boys was offered interpersonal skills counseling and then tested in September and May to see if there was any impact on family harmony.

One group of adult men was given instructions in reducing their high blood pressure whereas another was not given any instructions. One group of men was provided access to an exercise program and tested two times over a 6-month period for heart health.

Do this exercise by hand. A famous brand-name manufacturer wants to know whether people prefer Nibbles or Wribbles. They sample each type of cracker and indicate their like or dislike on a scale from 1 to 10. Which do they like the most?

Nibbles rating

Wribbles rating

9

4

3

7

1

6

6

8

5

7

7

7

8

8

3

6

10

7

3

8

5

9

2

8

9

7

6

3

2

6

5

7

8

6

1

5

6

5

3

6

Using the following table, provide three examples of a simple one-way ANOVA, two examples of a two-factor ANOVA, and one example of a three-factor ANOVA. Complete the table for the missing examples. Identify the grouping and the test variable.

Design

Grouping variable(s)

Test variable

Simple ANOVA

Four levels of hours of training—2, 4, 6, and 8 hours

Typing accuracy

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Two-factor ANOVA

Two levels of training and gender (two-way design)

Typing accuracy

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Three-factor ANOVA

Two levels of training, two of gender, and three of income

Voting attitudes

Enter Your Example Here

Enter Your Example Here

Using the data in Ch. 13 Data Set 2 and the IBM® SPSS® software, compute the F ratio for a comparison between the three levels representing the average amount of time that swimmers practice weekly (< 15, 15–25, and > 25 hours) with the outcome variable being their time for the 100-yard freestyle. Does practice time make a difference? Use the Options feature to obtain the means for the groups.

When would you use a factorial ANOVA rather than a simple ANOVA to test the significance of the difference between the averages of two or more groups?

Create a drawing or plan for a 2 × 3 experimental design that would lend itself to a factorial ANOVA. Identify the independent and dependent variables.

From Salkind (2011). Copyright © 2012 SAGE. All Rights Reserved. Adapted with permission.

Part C

Complete the questions below. Be specific and provide examples when relevant.

Cite any sources consistent with APA guidelines.

Question

Answer

What is meant by independent samples? Provide a research example of two independent samples.

When is it appropriate to use a t test for dependent samples? What is the key piece of information you must know in order to decide?

When is it appropriate to use an ANOVA? What is the key piece of information you must know in order to decide?

Why would you want to do an ANOVA when you have more than two groups, rather than just comparing each pair of means with a t test?