What is demography?

EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE As soon as possible, after attending lecture, complete the part of the study guide that was covered in lecture. This will help transfer the information from your short term memory to your long term memory. EACH DAY review the study guide. If you don’t understand something, ask me. POPULATION Describe the difference between exponential and logistic growth.  When plotted on graph paper, the curves are very different.  How are they different? How does environmental resistance prevent a population from growing exponentially indefinitely? What is meant by “carrying capacity”? What happens when populations don’t make a smooth transition between exponential and logistic growth? What is demography? Both replacement level fertility and total fertility rate (TFR) are 2 types of fertility rates that affect population size and growth rate.  How are they different (what do they measure)? The demographic transition model that was discussed in class looks at the effects of economic development (improvement of living conditions) on birth and death rates, and consequently population growth. Four demographic stages were discussed.

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a. During the predevelopment stage, why are birth rates and death rates high? Does total population increase, decrease, or remain about the same? b. Populations that start experiencing improved living conditions (economic development) usually experience a decrease in death rates; however, birth rates remain high and populations grow very rapidly. What are some factors that increase the desire to have children? c. What are some factors that increase the desire to have fewer children? d. With time, birth rates finally decrease and death rates remain stable. In order to have zero population growth (equilibrium), what is the goal? Declining fertility rates in the last 3 decades have resulted in a decrease in the rate of population growth. If population growth is decreasing, then why will populations continue to grow from 6 billion to possibly 8 billion or more, with 90% of that growth occurring in developing countries? To achieve stable world population, 75% of all couples will need to use contraceptives.   The “key” to meeting this goal is improved social, educational and economic status of women. Why?  What are the 3 most populous nations on earth? How was China able to reduce its TFR from 5.7 to 1.8 in only 30 years? In the very near future, India is expected to be the #1 most populated country even though it has decreased its TFR from 5.3 to 3.2. Why does India have such a strong momentum for growth? In the U.S., TFR is at replacement level, but population growth is not expected to stabilize. Why? What is the IPAT equation? Using this equation, describe the differences between poor countries and rich countries in terms of environmental impact. What is an ecological footprint? To reduce environmental impact, affluence and traditional industrial technology also need to be addressed (not just population). Why? What is occurring in many developing countries that is creating real concerns about future global environmental impact? Describe sustainable development using fair trade and microloans as examples.

SOLID, TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTE In the U.S., which method is primarily used for disposing of municipal waste? One-fifth of superfund sites are old municipal waste dumps.  Why?

Unlike open dumps, modern landfills must be designed to provide better protection for the environment.  List ways this can be accomplished. Give reasons why there are fewer landfills available for domestic waste disposal. Why are so many communities exporting their waste? What are some concerns with this practice? What is the difference between a mass burn facility and a refuse-derived fuel facility? What are some benefits and concerns with using incineration to dispose of domestic waste? You were hired by a community to recommend the best method for municipal waste disposal. List 2 methods and compare their advantages and disadvantages.  What would be your final recommendation?

What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch What happened in Love Canal, NY that exposed the health hazards of improper hazardous waste disposal? As a result of the Love Canal incident, the Superfund was created. What is the superfund used for?

AGRICULTURE: Food Using the diagram below, answer the following questions: a. What are trophic levels? b. What is the difference between producers and consumers? c. Describe the 10% rule.

039img d. Why is it that the number of individuals supported decreases at higher trophic levels? e. Explain why you can feed more people on a vegetarian diet (grain) than on a meat diet.

What is a CAFO?

In the last 40 years, what is happening with food production in relation to population growth rate? Is international food aid a good long-term solution to providing food security? Explain. In a world of surplus food, why are millions of people still not getting enough food? From 1950-1990, due to the green revolution, grain production surpassed human population growth.   What factors contributed to the Green Revolution? According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, which factor will contribute to 70% of future food production? Explain. What are some advantages and disadvantages of using crop irrigation? The use of chemical fertilizers contributed to the green revolution and helped to increase yields, but there are some negative consequences. What are they? In Europe, a tremendous amount of chemical fertilizers are used to increase crop yields. When farmers in those areas double their fertilizer use, do crop yields also double? Explain. DDT was first used in 1940.  Why was it considered to be a “miracle” chemical at the time? In the 1960s, it was discovered that DDT bioaccumulated.  What does this mean? What is the difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification? Why was DDT banned in the US? In 1950, a relatively small amount of pesticides were used and crop loss to pests was 31%.   Now, 64 times more pesticides are used and crop loss to pests is 37%.  If more pesticides are being used, shouldn’t there be a reduction in crop loss? What’s going on? What is meant by “the pesticide treadmill”? What is meant by “the circle of poison”? Describe methods that can reduce insect populations. Describe IPM.  When are insecticides used? What happened in Indonesia when they switched to IPM? What are some differences between IPM and organic farming? How can the use of Bt corn result in insecticide resistance?

Retaining land currently in crop production is a serious concern due to excessive soil degradation, caused by using inappropriate farming practices. What is happening to the topsoil in these situations? Which factors contributed to the “Dust Bowl”?

It was brought about by farmers who dug so deep into the ground hence destroying roots that used to hold soil together. The freed soil would then be blown away by wind hence the dust bowl. As a result of the Dust Bowl, in 1935, the Soil Conservation Service was established. However topsoil is still eroding faster than it forms. In the U.S., soil on cultivated land is eroding 16x faster than it is forming. Is this sustainable or unsustainable? Explain. List and describe some agricultural practices that can reduce soil erosion.  (Be sure to explain how they reduce soil erosion) Imagine that you work for an international nonprofit organization and your job is to establish aquaculture in a coastal village in order to increase local protein consumption. List the potential problems with aquaculture and describe ways that you can avoid these problems.

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