What is this question intended to address?

Based on your review of the most recent, relevant research findings on your chosen topic, submit a final version of your literature review paper, integrating feedback received from your instructor. Be sure to include a research/focal question, synthesis of the literature you reviewed, well-established conclusions, and points of discussion and/or future research.

  • Begin the review by defining the objective of the paper. Introduce the reader to your focal question. What is this question intended to address? You may state your “question” in the form of a problem if you like. Describe the topic for your literature review and why you chose this topic. Explain why you think it is important. It is also useful to tell the reader how the review is organized in your introduction section, before you the transition into the body of the review.
  • Organize your literature review paper by themes/theories/concepts, rather than article by article. If there is one major theme you want to highlight, state the theme. If there are three major themes or streams of thought on the topic, briefly name them—and then organize the balance of your literature review around those three streams. Think of themes, theories, concepts, lines of thought, and ideas as organizing strategies for your literature review. Your creativity in this assignment is not the content or findings but the clarity with which you organize the review and create a context for understanding the focal question.
  • When you are done introducing the first line of thought, create a new paragraph to discuss studies which present another line of thought or opposing view.
  • Your literature review should hit the high points of each article. You should not discuss a single article, one by one, like a grocery list. Zero in on the main theme or finding and then move on to the next theme. Remember, this is a synthesis, an integration of all the things you have learned. You are creating a discussion on paper, which in turn gives the reader a context for understanding where the scholarship has been, where it is currently, and where it likely will be heading next. Provide enough details to help the reader understand the significance of the studies you cite without “rebuilding Rome.” Be sure to evaluate the studies and offer critical comments on any shortcomings you’ve observed or that have been reported by the authors.
  • Discuss the main findings and their implications. Given the results of your literature review, what is/are the prevailing argument(s)? What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study and contribute to the existing body of knowledge? Complete your review by drawing conclusions about your body of research and identifying gaps in the research which still remain to be explored, maybe even by you! Make an argument as to why your research question is important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic.

Requirements 

Apply current APA standards for editorial style, expression of ideas, and formatting of the text, headings, citations, and references. Remember to use your own words to describe and evaluate the articles. Avoid quoting the material and also cite works when you are discussing someone else’s ideas. Your paper should be double-spaced and in 12 point, Times New Roman font with normal one-inch margins, written in APA style, and free of typographical and grammatical errors. It should include a title page with a running head, an abstract and a reference page. The body of the paper should be no less than 5–6 pages in length.

2

Running head: PTSD

PTSD 9

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Amber Hope

Argosy University

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles

Adamsons, K., & Johnson, S. (2013). An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4),, 589.

The discussion of the article is conclusive despite its major focus on the topic. The article talks about the relationship between fathering and child well-being as a factor associated with the development of depression. When a child does not have a strong relationship with the father, it becomes easy for them to become depressed. However, the article is general and does not provide specific reasons to the development of depression on a child. The article lacks significant data regarding depression. Despite the above factor, it presents adequate data regarding the relationship between a father and a child in the process of growth and development.

Anderson, D., Cesur, R., & Tekin, E. (2015). Youth depression and future criminal behavior. Economic Inquiry, 53(1),, 294-317.

The weakness of the article is that it brings out criminal behavior as an outcome of youth depression. It is not all the time that depression may cause criminality among individuals. Some people who are depressed may visit rehabilitation centers. The strength of the article is that depression among youths may motivate them to commit future crimes. This is because they may find possible ways of eliminating it in their lives. Criminality may serve as the alternative for rehabilitation for those youths who do not like to be in places with specific policies, rules, and standards. Therefore, the article argues that it is likely that individuals may commit crimes due to depression.

Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, A. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in battered women: The mediating role of learned helplessness. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 267-275.

Depression is a mild form of Posttraumatic stress disorder. It brings out women as individuals who are affected by depression the most. However, the strength of the article is that women are the ones contributing to their personal depression and PTSD levels. This is because they have all the help they need but may choose to ignore it. The weakness is that it talks of women as the main reason but focuses on their self-help. Women are seen as the ones to tackle their issue. It does not focus on motivation from other individuals in the society to assist them in handling their depressive situation.

Baumeister, R., Vohs, K., Aaker, J., & Garbinsky, E. (2013). Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(6),, 505-516.

Depression is the centerpiece of sadness among individuals. The article strengths focuses on the differences between people who live happy and meaningful lives. Happiness does not mean meaningfulness. It brings out clear points relating to depression as a factor that alienates meaning in life. One may be depressed despite being happy. Happiness does not mean that someone has a stable mind. The weakness is that the article only focuses on life as a general factor of human development. It does not look into the specific components of human life that influences meaningfulness. The data presented by the article is limited in terms of explaining the role of depression in enhancing a meaningful and a happy life.

Biaggi, A., Conroy, S., Pawlby, S., & Pariante, C. (2016). Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: a systematic review. Journal of affective disorders, 191, 62-77.

The weaknesses of the article is that it only focuses on depression and the risks it has on antenatal anxiety. Antenatal anxiety exists as a result of different issues such as poor relationships and poor social status. This means that depression is always present on a woman, it only depends on how they deal with it. The strength of the article is that women are able to acquire treatment so that it protects their pregnancies.

Brown, R. (2017). Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 62(2),, 284-304.

The theory of Jungian is brought as a mechanism that looks into the positive development of the human brain. The evidence produced by the theory is significant in introducing change. The article does not have any weakness because of its conclusive discussion of depression using the Jungian theory. The theory focuses on all races and multicultural perspectives conclusively.

Chassin, L. (2010). Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 24.1 , 48.

Psychosocial maturity is seen as a major factor in male juvenile offenders. The weakness is that the article looks into marijuana and alcohol as the factors that act as a barriers towards psychosocial maturity. Psychosocial maturity is a component of dealing effectively with depression. If the two barriers are introduced, male juvenile offenders are depressed because of the effects in their minds and the environment they are found in lacks stable factors for their growth.

Herring, S., Rich‐Edwards, J., Oken, E., Rifas‐Shiman, S., Kleinman, K., & Gillman, M. (2008). Association of postpartum depression with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Obesity, 16(6), 1296-1301.

The strength and weakness of the articles focuses on the group it focuses on through its discussion. The article only looks at the pregnant mothers one year after their childbirth. It does not look at the mothers during their first nine months before child birth. The data presented is limited to the period. The strength is that the data on postpartum depression on the group is conclusive. It explains the causes and the effect of the depression as factors originating from the process of bringing up a child.

O’Mahen, H., & Flynn, H. (2008). Preferences and perceived barriers to treatment for depression during the perinatal period. Journal of women’s health, 17(8), 1301-1309.

The article is conclusive because of its data that relates to the various barriers associated with the treatment of depression among perinatal period. Perinatal period is seen as one of the most crucial factors that need sensitive care due to the nature of the developed fetus. The article lacks weaknesses due to its diverse focus.

Söderquist, J., Wijma, B., Thorbert, G., & Wijma, K. (2009). Risk factors in pregnancy for post‐traumatic stress and depression after childbirth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116(5), 672-680.

Depression is studied focusing on pregnant women and after they have given birth. It looks into the risk factors that lead into the problem. The article possesses many strengths in terms of explaining the major causes of depression and their impacts. The weaknesses are minimal. It only focuses on the well-being of the mother and not the unborn/born child.

The Support/Contrast between the Articles and the Evidence from the Articles

The data presented by the articles is conclusive in terms of explaining different factors associated with depression. Depression is seen as a factor that originates from daily experiences. Social factors are the main factors that influence the development of depression in our society. Women and children are seen by the articles as being the most vulnerable groups when it comes to the onset and effect of depression. The articles focus on the dangers of depression on individuals and groups. It is important to look at the depression levels among individuals as those that need to be dealt with at any given time. Depression has been associated by loss of a fetus/child when it comes to a pregnant woman. It has been associated with underperformance among individuals. Depression is also a major contribution to family conflicts.

Individuals that suffer from depression end up having divorces and being violent with their spouses. Therefore, the articles present several ways through which to deal with depression. The first approach focuses on comprehending the causes and the main factors associated with the development of depression among individuals. Secondly, it investigates the role of counselors and family members in enhancing a stable environment that is free from depression and its impacts.

Possible Explanation Apart from the Article

Depression has for a long period served as a major problem when it comes to the development of the society. People have to comprehend that depression is something that will not stop despite the society trying as much as possible to create sustainable and effective counseling approaches. The best way to deal with depression is to focus on the victims. They are the reason as to why they experience depression. Therefore, it is important to look into their personal lives and develop possible ways to handle their issues personally before they receive assistance from counselors and mental experts. I believe that self-help is the best way to deal with the issue of depression.

I have also learned that depression is not a natural occurrence since it is caused by different social factors such as poor relationships, poverty, miscommunication, and adverse development in the society. Medication as a strategy to deal with depression does not have a major impact compared to having individuals receiving advice and counseling from counselors in the society. It is important to focus on creating a society that focuses on the positive needs of individuals to influence their positive developments.

Depression may be eliminated if the government, the private sector, and other members of the society come together in handling it and its effects. Depression is a major factor that needs to be studied for deeper comprehension. It is a factor that borrows ideas from the international psychological sector. It is a major factor that needs collaboration to comprehend. Individuals have to ensure that they work with community members, their families, and health agencies to enable them to acquire the needed health backgrounds.

Refining My Question

What are the best strategies to be used in handling depression?

Who are the individuals that suffer from depression and what have they done to ensure positivity?

References

Adamsons, K., & Johnson, S. (2013). An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4),, 589.

Anderson, D., Cesur, R., & Tekin, E. (2015). Youth depression and future criminal behavior. Economic Inquiry, 53(1),, 294-317.

Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, A. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in battered women: The mediating role of learned helplessness. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 267-275.

Baumeister, R., Vohs, K., Aaker, J., & Garbinsky, E. (2013). Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(6),, 505-516.

Biaggi, A., Conroy, S., Pawlby, S., & Pariante, C. (2016). Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: a systematic review. Journal of affective disorders, 191, 62-77.

Brown, R. (2017). Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 62(2),, 284-304.

Brummelte, S., & Galea, L. (2016). Postpartum depression: etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care. Hormones and behavior, 77, 153-166.

Chassin, L. (2010). Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 24.1 , 48.

Dziwota, E., Stepulak, M., Włoszczak-Szubzda, A., & Olajossy, M. (2018). Social functioning and the quality of life of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 25(1),, 50-55.

Fusar-Poli, P., Papanastasiou, E., Stahl, D., Rocchetti, M., Carpenter, W., Shergill, S., & McGuire, P. (2014). Treatments of negative symptoms in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of 168 randomized placebo-controlled trials. Schizophrenia bulletin, 41(4), 892-899.

Herring, S., Rich‐Edwards, J., Oken, E., Rifas‐Shiman, S., Kleinman, K., & Gillman, M. (2008). Association of postpartum depression with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Obesity, 16(6), 1296-1301.

O’Mahen, H., & Flynn, H. (2008). Preferences and perceived barriers to treatment for depression during the perinatal period. Journal of women’s health, 17(8), 1301-1309.

Söderquist, J., Wijma, B., Thorbert, G., & Wijma, K. (2009). Risk factors in pregnancy for post‐traumatic stress and depression after childbirth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116(5), 672-680.

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